Luke 4:1-13 records that Jesus was tempted by the devil for forty days. In the Bible this is a common time-period for change; thus it serves as the basis for the Christian season of Lent.
Lent is the forty-day season that Christians traditionally use to prepare for Easter. It’s a good time to think of the possibilities of transformation. It’s a good time to give up bad habits. It’s a good time to experiment with something new – especially when it’s something that’s spiritually good for you, and/or good for others. Sometimes these things can become new habits when they’re tried experimentally over a forty-day sequence – and I say that from experience.
Our basis for this is Jesus Himself. Jesus experienced a time like this. The Bible tells us that He was full of Holy Spirit. Full of this inspiration, He had just emerged from His baptism (recorded back in Luke 3:21-22). He was departing the area around the Jordan River. He entered this time of great vulnerability, perhaps because He was on a spiritual high from His baptism, or perhaps because He was hungry. This kind of deprivation can bring out the best in people, but it also can bring a person to new awareness of weaknesses. It’s like the candy bar commercial that says, “You’re not yourself when you’re hungry.” That’s one way of looking at it. Or maybe, more accurately, we’re too much of ourselves – our worst selves – when we’re in a deprived condition.
That may not have been true for Jesus, but it’s probably how the devil was thinking. The evil one tends to attack in situations of vulnerability – and attack he did, each time speaking directly to Jesus. It’s interesting that he started out with Jesus’ identity: “If you are the son of God…” (in 4:3a). Think of this in relation to what God declared to Jesus at His baptism: “You are my beloved son…” (in 3:22). The evil one is trying to disestablish what God has said beforehand. This is why it’s so important for us to understand who we are as God defines us. Who are you? Who has God said that you are? What has the world tried to tell you that you should be? The world and the devil will answer these questions very differently than the Bible does. So Christians do well to remember that our identity is based on what God has said about us, and not somebody else.
It’s interesting also that the first temptation includes a call to action: Jesus is challenged to change a stone to into bread (in 4:3b) – and this in an hour of intense hunger. Here we learn something else about vulnerability: Evil will try to appeal to our basic, neglected appetites: These can be physical temptations, sexual temptations, emotional temptations, etc. We are at risk because all of us are prone to justify our actions by appealing to our natural humanity; we were just letting nature take its course.
Let me speak to this from experience: for me it would be loneliness. Loneliness is something that’s biologically wired in us. God did not design us to be alone. Humans are social creatures by our very design. If someone is feeling lonely, that means you’re feeling uncomfortable for a good reason. You feel desperate in the need to reach out, and you can step over others in the process. I’ll tell you: Some of my worst mistakes were made when I was lonely. That’s not a good excuse. But it helps to understand what lurks behind the problem.
God has legitimate means of meeting our needs. Christian fellowship is one antidote. And another is exactly what Jesus is did: getting the scriptures enmeshed in your brain. Jesus refused each of the devil’s temptations by reciting scripture: The first time it was Deuteronomy 8:3: “Man shall not live by bread alone” (quoted in Luke 4:4). There comes a time when we put aside our physical needs to focus on our spiritual needs. Jesus had answered the first temptation by pointing to this fact.
With this the devil decided to try a different angle: Instead of focusing on identity, he now made Jesus an offer: All the kingdoms of world could be His if He wanted them. This is interesting because it directly states that these powers are under the devil’s control: “…it has been delivered to me, and I give it to whom I will” (4:6). Jesus does not question this assumption. There’s a legitimate place for governing authorities in the Bible, but the fact that someone’s holding an office is not evidence of a divine favor. So we must be careful of temptation to covet worldly power, or to worship it. The Satanic offer of authority and glory came with a call to worship for a reason: Idolatry is a danger that goes hand-in-hand with a craving for power.
Note also that both of these temptations have a call to action. In one sense they’re normal things. Make bread. Engage in worship. We do these things all the time – and they’re harmless when they’re not corrupted. But if they are corrupted, they’ll become a temptation for people who can’t sit still – people who always have to be doing something. Note here that Jesus’ response is to not do the prescribed action – nor take any action at all. At this stage of history Jesus is taking 40 days to focus on the scripture. Sometimes being a “man of action” isn’t a good thing; sometimes it’s better to pause and reflect on scripture just like Jesus did. This could be the underlying truth behind Psalm 46:10a: “Be still and know that I am God. I will be exalted among the nations! I will be exalted in the earth!” God will be glorified! All the world’s busy-ness might well be a form of succumbing to the devil!
Inaction with pause and a reflection on scriptures is what worked for Jesus. There would come a time for works in His ministry: feeding the hungry, exorcising demons, healing the sick, teaching the masses, etc. But here He simply refused the temptation by reciting scripture – this time Deuteronomy 6:13: “You shall worship the Lord your God, and him only shall you serve” (in Luke 4:8). Jesus did not come into the world to worship either the devil or any earthly power.
So with that possibility dispatched, the evil one transported Jesus to the pinnacle of the Jerusalem temple and returned to his previous methods. He was done making offers. This time he would return to the question of Jesus’ identity. There must be some special kind of vulnerability in this area. The fact that Satan worked on this two-thirds of the time with Jesus would seem to confirm it. I’m reminded of a quote from the German Lutheran pastor/mystical writer Jacob Boehme: "All the heights of pride in which man strives about meanings is an image of self-interest... all self-interest on the Day of Judgement will be given to darkness, as well as all those useless arguments by which they seek not love but only the image of self-interest that exalts itself in their interpretations. By these interpretations the princes are led to cause wars, and by these ideas they attack and storm lands and people. These belong to the separation of the wrong from the right in the Judgement. Then all meanings and images will cease and all the children of God will walk in the love of Christ and He will [dwell] in us."
Then as now, so much self-interest is wrapped up in how we see ourselves – in questions of identity. And this time the consequence was dire; again there was a call to action. The action was to jump.
This is troubling. Jesus says He’s hearing a voice from the devil. The voice is telling Him to make a suicide jump. It’s not a sin to be tempted; all of us are tempted in some way or another. And this temptation has particularly evil origins. It’s not uncommon: even Jesus experienced it.
And the devil reinforced it with scripture. He cited Psalm 91:11-12, which says,“’He will command his angels concerning you, to guard you,’ … ‘On their hands they will bear you up, lest you strike your foot against a stone.’” And he’s taking this to mean that Jesus has to do something foolish in order to establish His identity.
My friends, just because something is said to be “biblical” doesn’t mean that it’s from God. There are godly ways of using scripture, and there are Satanic ways of using scripture. A key thing to remember here is that Jesus didn’t get drawn in to a debate about it. Instead He focused on the scripture God had put before Him for this forty-day period. He quoted Deuteronomy 6:16: “You shall not put the Lord your God to the test” (in Luke 4:12).
What does this mean? It means we use our brains. We trust God, but we don’t put him to the test. We apply this to our physical lives, but it can also apply to other things. A person’s trust in God is not going to be gauged by a game of chicken. No one should do the fiscal equivalent of throwing yourself off a bridge. We approach things in faith, with a heart-and-head involved. God gave us our brains; He intends for us to use them. And this includes how we think about things like risk.
Jesus made that point, and the devil ceased tempting Him and departed. But the evil one wasn’t gone for good. He awaited “an opportune time”. And I would suggest that he does that same thing with each of us, which is why we hear this warning in I Peter 5:8 – “The devil prowls around like a roaming lion looking for someone to devour.”
So the caution of this verse sets our course for the Christian season of Lent. The devil waits like a prowling lion – in a predatory stance. We stand guard. Like Jesus, we mull the scriptures – we internalize them; we cite them when necessary. We recognize our areas of vulnerability. Things that happen to other people could happen to us as well. We won’t jump into action prematurely. We trust in God. We use both our heads and our hearts. And we derive our identity from what God has said – not from worldly demands, not from voices that tell us otherwise.
As Presidents’ Day was approaching I did some reading on the history of Presidential approval ratings. It was interesting to see the various highs and lows that have happened within my lifetime. The highest approval rating was given to George W. Bush in the immediate aftermath of the September 11th attacks: It was up at 90% in that part of 2001. And the lowest mark of 24% came in January of 1974 for President Richard Nixon in the midst of the Watergate scandal. Those are the extremes, but more generally the approval rating has hovered around 40 to 60%. There are always some people who will strongly disapprove of the President no matter who it is.
This came to mind as I was thinking of the political situation in Jesus’ time. In ancient Jerusalem there was a strong sense of disapproval for the ruling Roman regime. It wasn’t always commonly spoken of, for fear of reprisal, but nonetheless it wasn’t hard to discern. Israel had a strong heritage of its own independent, Davidic kingships. It was remembered and celebrated as a historic monarchy under the blessing of God. The Romans, by contrast, were a Gentile power-group. They were very abusive; they imposed oppressive levels of taxation, and they didn’t show much respect for the customs of the people. At best they were abrasively tolerant of Israelite faith; at worst they were downright hostile and even violent. And the practice of crucifixion fell into this category. It was done as an open display of violence before the populace with the goal of scaring people into submission.
All of this led to a deep yearning among Jesus’ contemporaries for the restoration of God’s kingdom. There was a passionate hope for some kind of supernatural action from God. The question posed to Jesus in Acts 1:6, right before His ascension, reflects this desire: “Lord, will you at this time restore the kingdom to Israel?” It all goes back to a deep-set frustration with the Roman reign over Jerusalem, and a yearning for God’s corrective action to come.
In this context, Jesus taught a lot about the kingdom of God. He emphasized its immanence; we should be expecting God to act. So He said, “The kingdom of God is at hand” (in Mark 1:15). Yet this kingdom does not conform to worldly hopes or expectations – and so Jesus said “My kingdom is not of this world” (in John 18:36). When people were putting too much focus on their surroundings and events, Jesus encouraged them to look within: “The kingdom is in the midst of you” (Luke 17:21). And yet there is also sense of promise of a kingdom that’s still yet to come, which Jesus illustrated with parables about a coming harvest (Matthew 13:24-30) and an arriving bridegroom (25:1-13).
One verse in particular got my attention: Luke 12:32 is where Jesus said, “Fear not, little flock, for it is your Father’s good pleasure to give you the kingdom.” This verse is important for several reasons…
Good things are coming, my friends. Press on!
God bless you,
Pastor Andrew McHenry
Epiphany fell on a Sunday this year. January 6th is the holiday where we celebrate the coming of the wise men to visit Jesus as a child. In worship that day I pondered over Matthew 2:12 which says, “And being warned in a dream not to return to Herod, they departed to their own country by another way.”
This raised questions for me that go back to details the text doesn’t provide: Did all the wise men have the same dream simultaneously? Or did one of them have it and then the group collectively took it as a warning? What was the conversation like that led to this? What was their normal group decision-making process? How was it altered by whatever the dream was?
Of course there’s no way of knowing any of this for sure, but it made me think of the common-sense wisdom that says, “Sleep on it.” It’s to our benefit when we can get a good night’s rest before making a major decision. Sleep helps us to process the facts, and then we wake up with a clearer sense of what needs to happen. Dreams are a part of our sleep cycle. Our subconscious minds generate images that reflect our emotional and spiritual state. If you can start to understand what the images represent as you’re dreaming, and then if you can then remember what you were feeling, you’ll come away with a deeper self-understanding of your spiritual/emotional wellness.
It can seem scary to throw God into the mix of this. Certainly it would be a mistake to view every dream as a sign from God. (Most of us have had some pretty strange dreams.) But God can communicate His will in any number of ways. Think of how the divine hand can intermingle with our subconscious minds as we dream. We can come away from the process with a better sense of direction. I think of the words of Proverbs 3:6: “In all your ways acknowledge Him and He will make your paths straight.”
All of this correlates with the broader scientific fact that a lack of rest can make for bad decision-making, while good rest can make for better decision-making. If you do a google search on sleep and decision-making you’ll find all kinds of scientific and health articles that speak to this.
These things came to mind when I was thinking about how to help the church in the decision-making process that we face. Many of our members have scattered, but new possibilities abound. There’s much to hope for, but there’s also a certain danger: Churches and other organizations can become deeply divided over questions of money and priorities. So on the last Sunday of January I chose to preach on Philippians 1:27-28 – “…let your manner of life be worthy of the gospel of Christ, so that whether I come and see you or am absent I may hear of you that you are standing firm in one spirit, with one mind striving side by side for the faith of the gospel, and not frightened in anything by your opponents. This is a clear sign to them of their destruction, but of your salvation, and that from God.”
I relate all of this to Paul’s call for “striving” or for a collective struggle. Unity is a struggle because it’s not natural. Entropy is natural. Quarreling and disagreement and backbiting are natural. But unity is something that we all have to struggle for together, with each of us playing a part.
This doesn’t mean that we’ll always agree. Disagreement, in fact, is a genuine part of God’s process since He’s made all of us differently. We begin with our varying perspectives, and then the Holy Spirit leads us as we pray and converse so that it all coalesces into a unified perspective that reflects the singular will of God.
That’s probably how it was for the wise men. Tradition says there were three of them, and I remember an expression I heard from a Baptist layman: “If you have three Baptists in one room, you’ll have four opinions.” Yet somehow they came to a consensus. They knew what they needed to do, and it wasn’t the default path of complying with the authorities. (Legal authority loses its credibility when it’s on the side of evil and oppression, as Herod clearly was.) So they took a path that was seemingly more risky; it was called “another way” in Matthew 2:12. Yet it turned out to be God’s way for them, which is always the best way to go.
And so it is for us: The Christian path isn’t always easy. The decisions we make are not geared towards our own comforts or ease. Our call is to take up the cross and follow Jesus. And we all know that the cross is followed by the resurrection. This is the witness of our faith which we struggle together for. And the fearless sense of collective direction that emerges is a sign of this salvation that comes from God alone.
God bless you,
Pastor Andrew McHenry
I want to focus on the text of Luke 1:26-28, which says, “26 In the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God to a city of Galilee named Nazareth, 27 to a virgin betrothed to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David. And the virgin's name was Mary. 28 And he came to her and said, ‘Greetings, O favored one, the Lord is with you!’”
Think of the expression of favor that is given to Mary here. There are times of life where things don’t go in your favor. I think of the board game Monopoly. You land on the spot for “luxury tax” and you have to pay $75. You are assessed for street repairs and you have to pay $40 for each house and $115 for each hotel. Or you land on Boardwalk and someone else has built a hotel on it and you have to fork over $2,000.
But of course it can go the other way. You land on Chance and there’s a bank error in your favor and you collect $200. Or someone wins second prize in a beauty contest and they collect $10 (and usually everyone looks at this player and wonders how that could’ve happened). Or you advance to go and you collect $200 more. And on it goes.
Life has this element of chance. Ecclesiastes 9:11 says that time and chance happen to all of us. There are other times where you feel less-favored and there are times when you feel more-favored.
And yet life is not just merely just a matter of luck. Just as we view the cross of Jesus through the lens of the resurrection, so life can make more sense when it’s viewed through the lens of God’s providence.
But we have to be careful with this. I found a resonant quote from the Lutheran theologian Martin Marty several years ago. He said this: “I find the most offensive kind of prayer when 250 Marines get killed... and four survive, and their families go on television and say, 'We really prayed, so they were spared.' That's an unbiblical game. It's magic; it's superstition. I like the matter-of-factness of Jesus when asked about the man born blind, and Jesus says, 'Did he sin or his parents? you ask. He was just born blind.' Things just happen. It rains on the just and the unjust alike."
If life is like Monopoly in that sense, this part of the annunciation narrative invites us to reconsider what divine favor looks like. Think of it in light of Mary’s larger experiences and the details of the text.
Or on the other hand, maybe she was at peace because this promise became the lens through which she viewed her life experience. If you see your life through the lens of God’s promises, your heart will be less troubled. The circumstances won’t disturb you so much because you’ll know that God is bigger than they are. This was why Paul was able to say in Philippians 4: Be anxious for nothing. Let your requests be made known to God. The peace that passes all understanding will guard your hearts and minds in Christ Jesus. Our worries fade when we trust God and hold to the promises that somehow He will make these troubled times work out for His kingdom good in the end.
And the key thing to remember is this: Favor from God is often attached to experiences of hardship. God spoke to Paul in one of his experiences of distress (in II Corinthians 12:9. We don’t know exactly what it was, but we know that God said this): “My grace is sufficient for you, for my power is made perfect in weakness” (my emphasis).
That’s the key. And there’s a corollary: the significance of this favor doesn’t end with us. (This is why it’s troubling for us sometimes. When we want/expect better things for ourselves than what we’re experiencing – and we don’t see them through the lens of this kind of favor – that’s when we can end up being disappointed.) But things don’t have to be this way because it’s not all about us. The significance of God’s favor is His larger will and glory – not always our personal well-being.
Plus, the main thing that could be reassuring for Mary was the fact that she was not alone. The angelic voice assured her: God is present. And we can take that to heart today as well. We probably won’t hear it from an angel in the way that Mary did, but it’s true nonetheless.
In fact, I believe that angels are all around us. Normally we can’t see them, but they are present. And God uses them for things that most often we aren’t even aware of.
I mentioned in my sermon last Sunday my phone conversation with Bob Curtis. And I mentioned that as we recounted our experiences of the fire, Bob said, “These are times when people will complain. But there’s no reason to complain. God can fix anything.”
I like that disposition. It’s all about putting on the right kind of lenses. Perhaps the way to start by asking this question: How might God use these experiences for my own benefit? An honest pondering of that question can lead to an alternative to complaining that Bob was talking about.
This is not to imply that some kind of lament totally out of order. There is a book of Lamentations in the Bible – and it’s in there for a reason. But it’s only one book out of many, and it’s not a very long book. It needs to be taken in context.
Lamenting has its place, but keep in mind that context. We’re not alone. God is with us. Christ is present. There are angels in our midst. The church continues; the gates of hell will not prevail against us. And God’s favor abounds. In some unseen/unknown way, God is working in our favor.
Occasionally I meet people who are scared of flying. It’s a sentiment that’s hard for me to relate to; I first flew overseas with my family when I was four. But for many people it’s a very real feeling. John Madden, for example, traveled all around the country in an RV with a hired driver for his NFL broadcasts. The reason: he didn’t like to fly.
I can see how scary it is because the whole thing is counter-intuitive. You’re getting into a small metal tube with people you don’t know. You’re moving at extremely high speeds, going to altitudes of tens of thousands of feet. These are clearly things that the human body was not designed to do.
But there are assurances that make us go through with it. An online exchange provides a flight arrangement with a respected airline. These airlines have hired and trained pilots. They’ve also put together a reliable schedule, in cooperation with a host of flight controllers and an international network of airports. So, this past summer Hillary and I booked tickets for a family vacation in Michigan. We flew from Sacramento to Chicago-O’Hare, and then to Traverse City. The airlines got us there on time with our luggage, and brought us back as well. Our confidence in our flight plans paid off.
I thought of this while I was studying Hebrews 3:14, which says to “hold our first confidence firm to the end.” This suggests that some in the writer’s congregation were facing the temptation to abandon ship, and that would be bad news. If, after traveling from Sacramento to Chicago, I decided I couldn’t trust my flight plan anymore, then I wouldn’t complete my journey. But all the while the tickets that I held would give me promise of the full trip. It would be in my best interest to hang on to them and stick it through the journey.
And if this is true with airplanes and pilots, it is even more true with the promises that God has given us in Jesus Christ. Our expectation is grounded in the hope of where He is taking us. The Israelites of the Old Testament made the mistake of abandoning ship in the desert, and they perished accordingly (Hebrews 3:15-19). So we’re told to be careful; if it could happen to them, it could happen to us just as well.
What caused their downfall? Warren Wiersbe put it well: “The heart of every problem is a problem in the heart.” So the author of Hebrews gives a prescription for some appropriate “heart medicine”…
Keep in mind that all of this is built in the larger bonds of Christian community. We are “partakers” in Christ, or “partners” (3:14a). The preacher uses the Greek word metochos to indicate that we are sharing in a larger bond. Think of the similar English word metropolis, which refers to several cities under the umbrella of a greater metropolitan area. With us, each one of us shares in Christ, under His headship – with all the promises entailed for the journey that we are on. So hold on to your tickets and keep your confidence! It’s a good flight plan. The turbulence may be rough at times, but we’re assured of a safe landing in the end.
God bless you,
Pastor Andrew McHenry
Most Christians celebrate at least two holidays: Christmas and Easter. Christmas, of course, commemorates the birth of Jesus, and Easter remembers His resurrection. Easter is celebrated on the first Sunday after the first full moon occurring on or after the vernal equinox (which is March 20th). So it always falls somewhere between March 22nd and April 25th. Next year it will be on April 21st.
But there are other lesser-known holidays that should not be forgotten. All Saints’ Day is one of them. It always falls on November 1st, right after Halloween. Halloween has sometimes been labelled as the devil’s holiday (and there are some odd customs associated with it), but its origin lies in the fact that it is the day before All Saints Day. All Hallows’ Eve is similar Christmas Eve in that sense. In the Bible the saints of God are considered “hallowed” – i.e. they are consecrated for God’s eternal purposes. This is different from the idea of having a religious group of canonized individuals, which was a much later development. All baptized believers in Christ are “saints” in the broader sense. And All Saints’ Day is a celebration of these saints who have gone before us. We look back and remember their lives and contributions. We light a candle in their memory, and we learn from their faith as we ponder our own Christian legacy.
Ascension Day is another significant lesser-known Christian holiday. It’s on the 40th day of Eastertide (always on a Thursday). On Ascension Day we remember Jesus’ ascension into heaven (in Acts 1:6-11). Next year it will be on May 30th.
And then ten days later we have Pentecost, on June 9th of 2019. I noticed that many of our church members wear red on Pentecost. This is seasonally appropriate, since that’s when we remember the coming of the Holy Spirit on the disciples gathered in Jerusalem (in Acts 2:1-13). Red represents the fire of the Holy Spirit.
Those dates will come in the spring and early summer. Before them, we will be observing Ash Wednesday on March 6th of 2019. Ash Wednesday begins the season of Lent, which was created originally for new confirmands being baptized on Easter Sunday. Mindful of the significance of 40 days as a standard period for spiritual movements/transformations in the Bible (e.g. Matthew 4:1-11, Jonah 3:4, etc.), Lent is a 40-day period of spiritual preparation before Easter. Eventually its observance was expanded to include everyone in the church besides the confirmands.
A common practice in the Old Testament was to wear sackcloth (i.e. burlap) and use ashes when practicing repentance (e.g. II Samuel 3:31, Job 42:6, Jonah 3:5-9, Matthew 11:21). Ashes also remind us of our mortality – since we are made from dust and we shall return to the dust (Genesis 3:19, Ecclesiastes 3:20). This points us to our need for God.
It took me awhile to figure out how Lent is structured. It consists of 40 days, but it excludes the Sundays. Each Sunday during Lent is considered like a mini-Easter. Perhaps for some it’s a bit of a reprieve from the Lenten disciplines. So, excluding Sundays, Lent is the 40-day season prior to Easter. And since Ash Wednesday is dated by its relation to Easter, its dates can range from February 4th to March 10th. Next year it will be on March 6th.
May God richly bless each one of you in observing these holy-days.
Pastor Andrew McHenry
There are many “hard passages” in the Bible. Sometimes they are difficult to understand. Other times they seem cruel and repulsive. But it’s important to study these texts and also to acknowledge these reactions. Ignoring them can be problematic in many ways. Sometimes skeptics will take advantage of the general unfamiliarity with these scriptures (since nobody puts them on bumper stickers) and then make attacks on the faith.
The best way to approach the Bible, including difficult passages, is to see them through the lens of our savior, Jesus Christ. Jesus re-interpreted the Old Testament laws radically (Matthew 5:21-48), and He also acknowledged that some passages were written because people have hard hearts (Matthew 19:8, Mark 10:5). What follows is a better understanding of scripture and application: Christian living is not a simple obedience to a bunch of commands – but a faithfulness of life rooted in love for God and love for those around us (including our enemies).
For a good example, we can begin with the Old Testament concept of “chērem”. This is sometimes spoken of as “the ban” against people-groups who were living in the Promised Land ahead of the Israelites. It involves both consecration and violent destruction. This is troubling in all its places – including in the book of Joshua. There it was incorporated into commands for the mass slaughter and destruction of the city of Jericho – including men, women, children, and animals (Joshua 6:17-19,21).
Some of this is mitigated by the offer of peace that was customarily made beforehand. The Israelites engaged in destruction only if it was first refused (Deuteronomy 20:10-18). But this is still a hard teaching; it invokes slavery even for those who accept the terms of peace. Slavery may have seemed like a better alternative at the time (as opposed to genocide), but today it’s completely unacceptable.
Some interpreters have focused on the part of consecration – emphasizing that it was meant to keep people from using warfare to get rich (Joshua 6:18-19). Others have noted that the references to chērem alternate with references to Rahab’s family being rescued (6:17b,22-23,25) – the emphasis being similar to that of Romans 10:13, which says “Everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved.”
These are helpful insights, but I think it’s more important to look at how Jesus appropriated this kind of teaching. He was probably drawing from this concept of chērem in Deuteronomy 20 when He gave His instructions for His peace mission in Luke 10:1-12. It’s ironic that such a violent passage would be used for peace, but the similarities are easy to notice. Like the Israelites of old, Jesus’ followers were wandering into new and hostile territory. And similarly, their work began with an offer for peace. Note what He said in His instruction…
These are some insights that have helped me in understanding the Bible. I hope they’re helpful for you as well. The Bible is a book like no other. It can transform lives when it’s interpreted in the right way.
May God bless you,
Pastor Andrew McHenry
There are a number of things that can be formative in shaping someone’s identity: career, activities, friendship networks, allegiances, location, etc. Family is one of these things – either with the immediate family or with one’s broader heritage. This is largely harmless, but there are some dangers to it.
Many people in Jesus’ time (and in the centuries before) placed emphasis on their lineage to Abraham, who was a founding father in the faith. Originally called of God when he was old and childless, he was promised a great legacy and multitude of descendants (in Genesis 15:1-6). In the New Testament era people were claiming this for a false assurance of salvation – which made John the Baptist take a confrontational approach: “You brood of vipers! Who warned you to flee from the coming wrath? Produce fruit in keeping with repentance. And do not think you can say to yourselves, ‘We have Abraham as our father.’ I tell you that out of these stones God can raise up children of Abraham. The ax is already at the root of the trees, and every tree that does not produce good fruit will be cut down and thrown into the fire” (Matthew 3:7b-10).
The apostle Paul had the same doctrine but he was more pastoral in his approach when he wrote his letter to the Romans. This is probably because he was writing not to confront but to introduce himself. He was making plans and hoped to visit the Roman church on a future missionary expedition to Spain (see Romans 15:23-24). Since he had never met the Christians in Rome, he wrote the epistle first to introduce his theology (in chapters 1-11), and also to explain his understanding of Christian practice (in chapters 12-15).
Recently I was studying Romans 4:1-8, and I thought of some questions that Christians have asked when it comes to evangelism: One of them is this: “If you were to die tomorrow, do you know where you’d spend eternity?” Another one is “How do you get right with God?” These are important questions, but they are not the ones Paul had in mind when he wrote to the Roman Christians. Instead, he was thinking of this question: Who are the real children of Abraham?
Paul was famous for his missionary outreach to Gentiles (i.e. to non-Jews), and some questioned the basis for bringing these new converts into the church. Remembering that Jesus was a Jew, they drew a hardline emphasis that basically said you have to be Jewish in order to be a Christian. This meant observing the numerous Old Testament laws, Jewish holidays, dietary scruples, etc. Paul disagreed with this approach: He taught that salvation is by faith alone, emphasizing that this was how it began for Abraham back in Genesis 15:6. Abraham (or “Abram” at the time) didn’t know God before his encounter with Him. He had no Torah, no circumcision, no temple in Jerusalem to worship at, no system of offerings and sacrifices. What he did have, though, was faith. God made a promise. Abraham believed it, trusting in God – and that was what brought him into right-standing with the Lord, since salvation comes to those who respond in faith to the revelation that God has given them (Romans 4:1-3).
Part of Paul’s pastoral approach was not to scold, but to help people see this as a great blessing. So he paraphrased and then quoted Psalm 32:1-2 (in Romans 4:6-8) emphasizing the experience and perspective of the Old Testament king David. There are many different beatitudes in the Bible; these ones speak of a happiness that comes from forgiveness of sins: “Blessed are those whose iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are covered; blessed is the one against whom the Lord will not reckon sin.”
I thought of this while reflecting on a popular quote from the Dalai Lama: “My religion is simple. My religion is kindness.” For Christians, the emphasis is different. Kindness is certainly a part of our faith (e.g. Galatians 5:22), but it’s seen more as a byproduct than as the central thing. So we might hearken to a natural follow-up question: “What do you do with all the times when you haven’t been so kind?” It’s important to be realistic enough to recognize our imperfection: no one lives up to their ideals 100% of the time. And this makes us realize our dependency on the grace of God. Martin Luther said it so well: “God does not accept the person on account of his works, but He accepts the works on account of the (believing) person. He first accepts the person who believes in Him and then accepts the works flowing from faith.”
God bless you, Pastor Andrew
I remember when I was young and was first learning about global Christianity. It was interesting to find out that there are basically three different groups of Christians:
God bless you, Pastor Andrew McHenry
This past year has been marked by striking a number of natural disasters: significant storms in different parts of the country, hurricanes and tornadoes, fires ravaging our state and other western states. The commentary has ranged from discussions of global warming to end times phenomena.
As a general rule I try to avoid making theological assumptions about other people’s suffering. Eventually such talk ends up looking either arrogant, stupid, or cruel. This is one of the major lessons of the book of Job in the Bible: Even when you’re armed with the best theology, it’s easy to make unsafe assumptions when you don’t know what’s going on behind the curtain.
But there are places for discernment, and we see this in the book of Jonah. The author was confident that God hurled the wind that created the storm (1:4). Jonah said flatly that he knew his presence on the ship was what caused the mayhem (1:12b). When people understand their life events through the lens of their faith and experience of God, I’m less apt to question their conclusions.
For our part, it’s probably best to spend our discerning-energies in trying to understand which efforts are wasted and which ones are well-spent. This is seen with the sailors on the ship (in 1:5-16). Searching for answers in an intense storm, they resorted to casting lots (1:7). They were just trying to understand the situation, and their first efforts didn’t work out so well. Faced with a no-win situation they engaged in a failed effort to row to shore (1:13). And all throughout the storm conditions worsened (1:11,13).
Have you ever been in a situation where you felt like you were spinning your wheels to no good end? What should you do? The narrative gives some clues on how to respond…
Jonah was a prophet in the 8th century B.C. with messages for both his nation (II Kings 14:25-27) and for a foreign nation (Jonah 1:1-2). Many years later God sent His son, our savior Jesus Christ, to be the redeemer for the people of all nations. Jesus declared that God’s house should be a house of prayer for all people (Mark 11:17). And Jesus calmed the storm when His disciples were out at sea (Mark 4:35-41). Putting your faith in Jesus is no guarantee that you won’t have to face storms; Jesus, after all, had to endure persecution and crucifixion. But knowing Jesus and having a healthy prayer-life can give a peace that passes understanding (Philippians 4:7). And it’s all a part of our faith that serves as a foundation for making good decisions in the stormy seasons of life.
God bless you,
Andrew McHenry, Pastor
I am a husband, a Congregational pastor, and a native Kansan currently living in Thermalito, California. In the past I have also been a prison chaplain and a youth pastor. Interests include reading, railroads, prog rock, KU, and the KC Royals. Opinions are my own and are not necessarily those of organizations I have been with.